But carbon dating won't work on dinosaur bones. The half-life of carbon is only 5, years, so carbon dating is only effective on samples that are less than 50, years old.
- How Do Scientists Determine the Age of Dinosaur Bones?;
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- Radiocarbon Dating of Sediment or Soil.
Dinosaur bones, on the other hand, are millions of years old -- some fossils are billions of years old. To determine the ages of these specimens, scientists need an isotope with a very long half-life. Some of the isotopes used for this purpose are uranium, uranium and potassium , each of which has a half-life of more than a million years. Unfortunately, these elements don't exist in dinosaur fossils themselves. Each of them typically exists in igneous rock, or rock made from cooled magma. Fossils, however, form in sedimentary rock -- sediment quickly covers a dinosaur's body, and the sediment and the bones gradually turn into rock.
But this sediment doesn't typically include the necessary isotopes in measurable amounts.
Microwave Detected Photoconductivity (MDP)
Fossils can't form in the igneous rock that usually does contain the isotopes. The extreme temperatures of the magma would just destroy the bones. So to determine the age of sedimentary rock layers, researchers first have to find neighboring layers of Earth that include igneous rock, such as volcanic ash.
These layers are like bookends -- they give a beginning and an end to the period of time when the sedimentary rock formed.
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By using radiometric dating to determine the age of igneous brackets , researchers can accurately determine the age of the sedimentary layers between them. Using the basic ideas of bracketing and radiometric dating, researchers have determined the age of rock layers all over the world. In the absence of macrofossils, radiocarbon dating can be done on sediment bulk organic fraction, humic fraction, or humin fraction.
Macrofossil Identification — Beta Analytic does not offer identification services at this time.
It is acid washed to remove carbonates then treated with alkali to solubolize the humic acids which are then precipitated for AMS dating. It is acid washed to remove carbonates then treated with alkali to solubolize the humic acids which are rinsed away. The remaining alkali-insoluble fraction is dated. Our lab does not identify the exact type of macrofossil found in the sediment. Identification of macrofossils requires highly trained scientists, e. Generally, it is better to date the macrofossils present than the sediment due to the possible contaminants in the latter.
Most macrofossils can be treated with 1 acid to remove carbonates, and 2 alkali to remove humic acids that might be in the sediment. Humic acids come from the decay of plants. Sediment and rain water or ground water can move these humic acids up or down through the sedimentary profile bringing carbon that is either younger or older into a sediment layer.
In most cases, humic acids travel downward and make the underlying sediment appear to be younger sometimes by a small amount, sometimes by a large amount of bias.
This is mostly true for sediments that are organic rich dark black or brown in coloration as well as for sediments that are not well drained and where water ponds like swamps, peat bogs, etc. In areas where there is not much rain fall or the sediment is well drained or is low in carbon light tan or gray sediments , humic acids may not be much of a problem.
Sediment dating - Freiberg Instruments - Dosimetry and Dating
For such sediment samples, when you date both the sediment and some plant material that is found in the sediment, the dates are usually very similar thus sometimes there is really no humic acid problem to worry about. When sediments yield older ages than the plant macrofossil , it is usually due to two possible reasons:. In general the plant dates are usually more reliable as they typically represent a more unique event in time. The plants were relatively short-lived as compared to the time it may have taken for the sediment to form.
Dating the CaCO3 fraction of sediments is often done, but it can be problematic if the origin of the carbonate in the sediment is not well understood. Carbonate in sediments can come from the natural development of carbonate nodules in the sediment called pedogenic carbonates or from the movement of carbonates that are dissolved out of geologic formations like limestone, marl and other carbonate bearing minerals which are then redeposited into the sediment.
Sediment geochemistry is very complex and can change from area to area even over small distances. If macrofossils are found, the lab will inform the researchers and they can decide if they want to date the macrofossils or sediment.
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In some cases, it is wise to date both separately to see if the macrofossils or sediment is yielding the best most reliable date. This can be useful information if a large core or sequence of cores are being dated. Sediments that are treated with alkali to extract humic acids and then dated on the humic acid or humin fraction can sometimes yield problematic results depending on the localized soil geochemistry.
Alkali extractions on sediments will remove any unbound carbon that is alkali-soluble.
The source of this carbon can be from more recent humic and fulvic acids or ancient labile carbon that is alkali-soluble. Researchers sometimes assume that by performing an alkali extraction, the age of the sediment should always become older and therefore more accurate. However, many times what happens is the opposite; the alkali-extracted sediment yields a younger date due to the factors above. When alkali extractions and dating on either the humic or humin fractions or sediments are requested, the lab recommends that the researcher considers getting three dates for at least one sample prior to dating a larger number of samples, provided all of the samples submitted are from the same unique depositional area and geochemistry.
By having all 3 dates, a researcher can compare the results and see if one fraction or the other makes more sense and then use that as a guide to dating the other sediment samples in that area. If this is not financially possible or if the researcher has previously dated sediments in the area of collection on either the humic or humin fractions, these 3 dates may not be necessary. It is up to the researchers to determine what is best for their research. The Beta Analytic lab has analyzed thousands of sediment dates per year, and almost all of them are on the acid-washed and sieved bulk organic fraction.
Typically the acid-washed and sieved bulk organic fraction will yield the most accurate date or a date somewhat more recent if there are more recent mobilized humic acids present.