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To create new aesthetic values. To communalize material wealth. To individualize spiritual wealth. This is the true property of individuals. The rest is vulnerable! And all that is vulnerable will be violated! It is nonsense to speak of 'emphatically prioritizing the social over the individual,' [ Anarchy is a 'method of individualization. On the article by Max Baginski called "Stirner: To them, not merely religion, morality, family and State are spooks, but property also is no more than a spook, in whose name the individual is enslaved—and how enslaved!

The individuality is nowadays held in far stronger bondage by property, than by the combined power of State, religion and morality [ Communism thus creates a basis for the liberty and Eigenheit of the individual. I am a Communist because I am an Individualist. Fully as heartily the Communists concur with Stirner when he puts the word take in place of demand—that leads to the dissolution of private property , to expropriation.

Individualism and Communism go hand in hand. Anarchist communists counter the capitalist conception that communal property can only be maintained by force and that such a position is neither fixed in nature [] nor unchangeable in practice, citing numerous examples of communal behavior occurring naturally even within capitalist systems.

Anarchist economics

As such the prominent anarcho-communist Alexander Berkman maintained that "The revolution abolishes private ownership of the means of production and distribution, and with it goes capitalistic business. Personal possession remains only in the things you use. Thus, your watch is your own, but the watch factory belongs to the people. Land, machinery, and all other public utilities will be collective property, neither to be bought nor sold. Actual use will be considered the only title-not to ownership but to possession. The organization of the coal miners, for example, will be in charge of the coal mines, not as owners but as the operating agency.

Similarly will the railroad brotherhoods run the railroads, and so on. Collective possession, cooperatively managed in the interests of the community, will take the place of personal ownership privately conducted for profit. An important difference between anarchist communism and Marxist communism is who the product of the worker's labor belongs to.

Both ideologies believe that the product of labor does not belong to the capitalist due to it being produced by the worker and not the employer, however, there are slight differences between the opinions taken by anarchist communist Peter Kropotkin and Karl Marx. Marx stated that the product of the worker's labor belongs to the worker due to it being produced by the worker.

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In contrast, Kropotkin believed that the product of the worker's labor belongs to the community as a whole. Kropotkin argued that this was the case because the worker relied on the previous work of untold millions in to even begin his particular form of labor, and therefore, his work should belong to the community, since he benefited from the community. Anarcho-communism has been critical of a simple call for worker's ownership of workplaces and their administration as cooperatives.

While not at odds with syndicalism as a tactic, it opposes the vision of anarcho-syndicalism as a theory, which sees a post-capitalist economy being made up of federations of industrial syndicates. Instead, anarcho-communism proposes that the future society be organised territorially through free communes localities , instead of industrially through workers' unions syndicates.

Each commune is perceived as an integrated political-economic unit, removing the distinction between work and community, as well as existing as part of a wider communal-confederation made up of other such autonomous communes, linked together via voluntary contractual agreements. This is seen as overcoming the economic-centrism of more "workerist" forms of socialism which focus on the workplace alone as a site of struggle.

But what of the syndicalist ideal of "collectivized" self-managed enterprises that are coordinated by like occupations on a national level and coordinated geographically by "collectives" on a local level? Many workers, in fact, would like to get away from their factories if they could and find more creative artisanal types of work, not simply "participate" in "planning" their own misery.

What " economic democracy " meant in its profoundest sense was free, "democratic" access to the means of life, the counterpart of political democracy, that is, the guarantee of freedom from material want. It is a dirty bourgeois trick, in which many radicals unknowingly participate, that "economic democracy" has been re-interpreted as "employee ownership" and "workplace democracy" and has come to mean workers' "participation" in profit sharing and industrial management rather than freedom from the tyranny of the factory, rationalized labor, and "planned production," which is usually exploitative production with the complicity of the workers.

Whereas the syndicalist alternative re-privatizes the economy into "self-managed" collectives and opens the way to their degeneration into traditional forms of private property—whether "collectively" owned or not—libertarian municipalism politicizes the economy and dissolves it into the civic domain.

Neither factory or land appear as separate interests within the communal collective. Nor can workers, farmers, technicians, engineers, professionals, and the like perpetuate their vocational identities as separate interests that exist apart from the citizen body in face-to-face assemblies. The word "communism" in anarcho-communism should thus be taken to refer to a polity of communes as well as an economy of the commons. For platformist anarcho-communist Wayne Price:.

Today's proposals for Parecon , in which workers are rewarded for the intensity and duration of their labor in a cooperative economy, would fit into Bakunin's or Marx's concept of a transitory, beginning, phase, of a free society [ Instead he proposed that a revolutionary society should "transform itself immediately into a communist society, that is, should go immediately into what Marx had regarded as the "more advanced", completed, phase of communism.

Kropotkin and those who agreed with him called themselves "anarchist-communists" or "communist anarchists" , although they continued to regard themselves as a part of the broader socialist movement. Leninists believe that without a transitional period of state control their interpretation of the dictatorship of the proletariat , it would be impossible for any revolution to maintain the momentum or cohesion to defend the new society against external and internal threats. Anarchists reject the Marxist—Leninist model of the "dictatorship of the proletariat," arguing that any revolutionary minority taking over state power would be just as authoritarian as the ruling class in capitalism to defend the new state, and would eventually constitute itself as a new ruling class.

A Modest Proposal For Dating Regulations

As an extension of this, Anarcho-communists counter-argue that decentralized, stateless collective federations are sufficient to give both power to workers and preserve personal freedom and point to the fact that no socialist state has ever showed signs of "withering away". Again, the Spanish Revolution is cited as an example of successful anarchist military mobilization, albeit one crushed by superior forces. Anarcho-communism calls for a confederal form in relationships of mutual aid and free association between communes as an alternative to the centralism of the nation-state.

Peter Kropotkin thus suggested:. Representative government has accomplished its historical mission; it has given a mortal blow to court-rule; and by its debates it has awakened public interest in public questions. But to see in it the government of the future socialist society is to commit a gross error. Each economic phase of life implies its own political phase; and it is impossible to touch the very basis of the present economic life—private property—without a corresponding change in the very basis of the political organization.

Life already shows in which direction the change will be made.


Not in increasing the powers of the State, but in resorting to free organization and free federation in all those branches which are now considered as attributes of the State. Hence the confederation of communes "the Commune of communes" is reworked economically as well as politically into a shared universe of publicly managed resources. The management of the economy, precisely because it is a public activity, does not degenerate into privatized interactions between enterprises; rather it develops into confederalized interactions between municipalities.

That is to say, the very elements of societal interaction are expanded from real or potential privatized components to institutionally real public components. Confederation becomes a public project by definition, not only because of shared needs and resources. If there is any way to avoid the emergence of the city-state, not to speak of self-serving bourgeois "cooperatives," it is through a municipalization of political life that is so complete that politics embraces not only what we call the public sphere but material means of life as well.

There have been several attempts, both successful and unsuccessful, at creating other anarchist-communist societies throughout much of the world. Anarchist-communists and some green anarchists especially anarcho-primitivists argue that hunter-gatherer tribes , like families, were early forms of anarchist-communism due to their egalitarian nature. Both an ancient and modern day example of anarcho-communism being utilised by an isolated population would be by the hunter-gatherers of North Sentinel Island. North Sentinel Island is one of the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal , occupied by the Sentinelese tribe who've inhabited the island for a least 60, years.

The workers, both male and female, control the means of production, as all materials found and collected go toward building small-scale structures for housing and storing of items. Though geographically close to the Indian Subcontinent , the Indian government doesn't disturb them, as they remain ungoverned. If North Sentinel Island could be called a country, it would be the last remaining anarchist country on the planet. These claims originate from French fiction , written to create curiosity for places people of Europe had never travelled.

Early Christian communities have also been described as having anarcho-communist characteristics. In anthropology and the social sciences, a gift economy or gift culture is a mode of exchange where valuable goods and services are regularly given without any explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards i. Traditional societies dominated by gift exchange were small in scale and geographically remote from each other. As states formed to regulate trade and commerce within their boundaries, market exchange came to dominate.

Nonetheless, the practice of gift exchange continues to play an important role in modern society.

Relationship Anarchy: What it is and Why it's Awesome

The expansion of the Internet has witnessed a resurgence of the gift economy, especially in the technology sector. Engineers, scientists and software developers create open-source software projects.

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The Linux kernel and the GNU operating system are prototypical examples for the gift economy's prominence in the technology sector and its active role in instating the use of permissive free software and copyleft licenses, which allow free reuse of software and knowledge. Anarchist scholar Uri Gordon has said that:. Moreover, for anarchists it is precisely the logic of expropriation and electronic piracy that enables a radical political extension of the cultural ideals of the free manipulation, circulation and use of information associated with the " hacker ethic" Himanen The space of illegality created by P2P peer-to-peer file-sharing opens up the possibility, not only of the open circulation of freely-given information and software as it is on the Internet today, but also of conscious copyright violation.

The Internet, then, enables not only communist relations around information, but also the militant contamination and erosion of non-communist regimes of knowledge—a technological "weapon" to equalise access to information, eating away at intellectual property rights by rendering them unenforceable. The interest in such economic forms goes back to Peter Kropotkin , who saw in the hunter-gatherer tribes he had visited the paradigm of " mutual aid ".

The First Years argues that with the advent of the great Axial Age civilizations, the nexus between coinage and the calculability of economic values was concomitant with the disrupt of what Graeber calls "human economies," as found among the Iroquois , Celts , Inuit , Tiv , Nuer , and the Malagasy people of Madagascar among other groups which, according to Graeber, held a radically different conception of debt and social relations, based on the radical incalculability of human life and the constant creation and recreation of social bonds through gifts, marriages and general sociability.

The author postulates the growth of a "military-coinage-slave complex" around this time, through which mercenary armies looted cities and human beings were cut from their social context to work as slaves in Greece, Rome and elsewhere in the Eurasian continent. The extreme violence of the period marked by the rise of great empires in China, India and the Mediterranean was, in this way, connected with the advent of large-scale slavery and the use of coins to pay soldiers, together with the obligation enforced by the State for its subjects to pay its taxes in currency. This was also the same time that the great religions spread out and the general questions of philosophical enquiry emerged on world history—many of those directly related, as in Plato's Republic, with the nature of debt and its relation to ethics.

The success was short-lived and much less widespread than the anarchism in Spain. Trumbullplex , as an example of an anarchist community, operates to serve the common good through sheltering residents within a neighbourhood of Detroit , Michigan. This allows individuals who've previously gone into debt by means of rent to escape their economic burdens and join a democratic commune. The commune has served as a hangout for young members of the locality, alongside a place intended for teamwork and cooperative decision making. The commune has existed since Its current ideology, the same as its founding ideology, was to establish a settlement based on principles of mutual aid and the absence of hierarchy.

Give-away shops , free shops, or free stores, are stores where all goods are free. They are similar to charity shops , with mostly second-hand items—only everything is available at no cost. Whether it is a book , a piece of furniture, a garment or a household item, it is all freely given away, although some operate a one-in, one-out—type policy swap shops. The free store is a form of constructive direct action that provides a shopping alternative to a monetary framework, allowing people to exchange goods and services outside of a money-based economy.

The anarchist s countercultural group The Diggers [] opened free stores which simply gave away their stock, provided free food, distributed free drugs, gave away money, organized free music concerts, and performed works of political art.